Group Members for the year 1913

Shamaila Siddique
Sameen Butt
Sabrina Q. Painda


We decided as a group to focus on the Balkan Wars, during the year 1913 for our Information Space assignment. The Balkan Wars was a major world event that altered the geography of Europe. Researching for this event is easily done and can provide interesting information for the viewers. The notions of pride, nationalism and independence came into play during this war. There were two Balkan Wars and each war resulted in important events during 1913.

The Balkans is a group of countries that encircle a peninsula in the southeastern corner of Europe (Ramet 42). These countries include Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia (Jelavich & Jelavich 91).

The history of the Balkans dates back centuries, but culminates in modern times with the involvement of powerful European nations including Austria-Hungary, France, and the United Kingdom. These all supported the idea of Balkan nationalism, fueling a war that forced the Ottoman Empire to relinquish their hold of Greece, Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania. These countries garnered independence. Furthermore, the Congress of Berlin in 1878 reorganized the independence of Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. However, the Ottoman Empire continued to seize the nations of Macedonia and Albania (Ramet 42).

During the first Balkan War, the independent states of southeastern Europe desired freedom from the authority of the Ottoman Empire. The Balkan countries wanted the Ottoman Empire to remove all their European possessions. The Ottoman Empire refused to comply with their demands. In October 1912, war erupted between the Ottoman Empire and four of the Balkan states, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia. The Ottoman Empire was defeated and on May 30th 1913 signed the Treaty of London (Ramet 42). The Turkish Grand Vizier, Kiamil Pasha was prepared to accept the demands of the treaty (Gilbert 273).

For the second Balkan War, Bulgaria attacked Serbian and Greek positions in Macedonia on June 11th 1913. Romania, Montenegro and the Ottoman Empire joined Serbs and Greeks to fight against Bulgaria (Ramet 42). In less than a month of war, Bulgaria declared peace. On August 10th, 1913, Bulgaria signed the Treaty of Bucharest.

Content Planning

From our previous assignment we utilized various photos and Web page designs to make our concept map interesting for the viewer. As a group we will strive for that same goal again. Since the Balkan Wars involved the nations located in South-eastern Europe we will likely place the image of the Balkan map as our background. However, as we progress during our assignment many ideas will come into play and last minute changes will be expected. Currently, our idea is to utilize images of national flags of the warring countries and the key political figures during the Balkan Wars. Furthermore, we will incorporate the image of the map of Europe before and after the war. Either both images will be the background or be part of the gallery section. The excessive usage of images and colours will be restricted; simplification is the best way to go for this project. The way this Website will function is by discussing the location of the Balkan War, the background history (as mentioned beforehand), and the five W’s: why, when, who, where, what and of course how. Numerous conflicting interests were present that led these nations to war.

To sum up briefly, our design will be visually appealing, utilizing some of the visualization principles. Our Website will consist of a simple menu/toolbar that will be placed on the central image of our Website, which is the map of the Balkan region. Therefore, the format of our Website will follow a geographic scheme. Our menu will include the following topics: the Background History of the Balkan War, the First Balkan War, the Second Balkan War, Gallery and the Key Events. Why, when, who, where, what and how, will be answered in each category. The Gallery will display the images of the political figures in power during this conflict. The Key Events of the wars during 1912-13 will be presented in a time-line/chronology format. However, most of the time-line will focus on the year of 1913.

Within our background history there is more than one country involved in the war. As mentioned, we will utilize the nation flags as iconic representation for the rollover buttons, as part of our navigation system. This will be done elegantly, to avoid the look of over cluttered images.

Furthermore, the way our Website will navigate will not be complex. An opening page with navigation buttons will appear. We will use rollover buttons (with images of the flags on them) so the viewer will know what area of the site they want to maneuver to and what area of the Website they already seen. Once the viewer clicks on a button, they will be directed to a corresponding page and be able to read the information listed under that category. To promote simplicity, the pages will be consistent, utilizing the same basic format. This will benefit our site in both layout and functionality.


Our group’s objective is to present a very appealing, interesting presentation of the Balkan War. Our purpose is to transform this rather mundane topic into a creative learning experience. Through our visualization, we will be able to help people to remember key events of the Balkan War. Our other aspiration is to provide this experience without the usage of flashy icons to garner attention from the viewer.

Lastly, our goal is to make our site educational and fun. We want to avoid too much text on the site as we know it is not easy for people to read online and most likely the viewer will skim what is written. Our layout focus is to make it simple.


Gilbert, Martin. A History of the Twentieth Century Volume One 1900-1933. Vol. 1. New York: Stoddart Corportaion Limited, 1997.

Jelavich, Charles, and Barbara Jelavich. "Balkans." The Encyclopedia Americana International Edition. 3 vols. Danbury: Grolier Incorporated, 1988.

Ramet, Sabrina P. "Balkans." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2 vols. Chicago: World Book Inc, 2006.


These pictures shown below will be the basic idea of what our background image might appear to be. These two images depict how the Balkan region changed after the first war and the second one. Either our background picture will be a mash-up of the two images or we would use the latter image, since 1913 is the focus of our assignment.

If we choose the image of the Second Balkan War as our background then we will place the rollover buttons on each nation. The button titled the Background History will be placed on Greece. The First Balkan War button will be placed on the Ottoman Empire because it is responsible for the first war. Bulgaria is the cause of the second war, which makes it reasonable to place the button for the Second Balkan War there. Romania will have the Gallery icon and Serbia will have the rollover button for World Events. To some extent, the navigation system will list the topics in a chronological manner. Since the First Balkan War button is placed before the Second Balkan War button under Bulgaria, this follows a time-line format. The buttons are not placed arbitrarily but in a counter-clockwise format. There will be a contrast between the buttons and the background image. With the placement and the design of these menus buttons will reduce confusion.

However, if this format proves to be complicated then a simple navigation menu/toolbar system will be located at the side and not placed on top of the countries. This could be the better choice.


First Balkan War 1912


Second Balkan War 1913

Image Bibliography

First Balkan War (1912). 15 Mar. 2007 Mar. 2007.

Second Balkan War (1913). 15 Mar. 2007.