Benson, Turner and Turner Ch. 17 Summary

Affective Computing and Pleasure

- throughout this chapter the aim is to focus on the role of emotions in interactive systems of design.

3 Basic aspects of Affective computing are

1) Getting computers to recognize human emotions and react accordingly. A good example of this may be the use of sensors in a motor car to detect whether or not the driver is angry or stressed.
2) Synthesizing emotion, that is giving impression of computers behaving or reacting with emotions
3) Designing interactive systems which communicate or evoke human emotions.

- emotions are part of day to day human functioning. Emotions plays a significant part in decision making, social interaction and most aspects of what we would describe as cognitive such as problem solving, thinking and perception.
- understanding of how emotion works can help us design systems which recognize, synthesize and evoke emotions.

It is generally agreed that emotions have 3 components:

1) the subjective feeling of fear
2) the associated physiological changes in the ANS and the endocrine system
3) the behaviour evoked

- beyond the simple cataloguing of emotions and its components are the various attempts to account for them.
- the James Lang theory argues that action precedes emotions and the brain interprets the observed action or actions as emotions
- the Cannon- Bard theory disagreed with the James-Lange theory and argued that when an emotion-arousing stimulus is first perceived, then actions follow from cognitive appraisal.
- Schacter and Singer favoured the idea that the experience of emotions arises from the cognitive labeling of physiological sensation.
They proposed that once the physiological symptoms or arousal have been experienced an individual will gather info from the immediate context and use it to modify the label they attach to the sensation.
- according to cognitive appraisal theory some degree of evaluation of the situation always precedes the affective reaction.


- Theorist Tiger has argued that their are 4 dimensions or aspects of pleasure
1) Physio-pleasure: concerned with the body and the senses. Physio pleasure arises from touching or handling devices or from their smell.
2) Socio-pleasure: arises from relationship with others. Products and devices which have a socio-pleasure aspect either facilitate social activity or improve relationships with others.
3) Psycho-pleasure: refers to cognative or emotional pleasure, such as the sense of accomplishment of a task.
4) Ideo-pleasure: concerns our values-things one holds dear or meaningful- and aspirations.

Capablities that allow computers to recongize emotions.

1) Input: able to receive a signal
2) Pattern Recognition: Perform classifications on signals
3) Bias: Emotional state of computer
4) Learning: As computer learn to adjust to someone it will recongize and stimulus certian functions
5) Outputs:Computer will name and recognize expressions and the emotions.