Web Development Technologies


The emergence of the internet has allowed people to share information across the world at lightning quick speeds. In order to access that information, it needs to be organized and presented in an easily consumed manner. The appearance of different programming languages and frameworks has greatly facilitated the capability and complexity of web applications. Web 2.0 is a term applied to the transition from static web pages to dynamic and interactive “web services”. It is expected that Web 2.0 applications will replace desktop applications because they are accessible from any computer with an internet connection. The most popular Web 2.0 application right now is Facebook, which originally started out as an interactive online high school yearbook.

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Examples of Client Side Scripting – JavaScript


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JavaScript

· Pure scripting language.
· Frees bandwidth and server resources because everything is being done on the client’s computer.
· Commonly used to validate forms, detect user’s browsers and detect real time-changes (hovering over links etc.).
· Also used to create dynamic drop-down menus seen on many websites.
· It is possible to create complex websites with the aid of JavaScript.


Examples of Server Side Scripting – Perl, PHP, JSP, ASP.NET



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PHP (Personal Home Pages or PHP Hypertext Preprocessor)

· Open source (licensing is free).
· Built from the ground up for Web Development.
· Server side scripting – This means that the end product that is given to a user will be in HTML .and only HTML code, not allowing the user to steal algorithms or ideas easily.
· Easy Access to information in databases such as MySql, MsSql and PostgreSQL.
· With embedded SQL capabilities, PHP is becoming the most popular choice on the web.





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Perl (Practical Extracting and Recording Language)

· Originally built for easy file access and application development.
· Using the PM module (CGI.pm), complex WebPages may be created using this powerful language.
· Has powerful Regular Expression capabilities which is useful for searching websites, validation input forms, and many other uses.





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JSP (Java Server Pages)

· Allows programmers to create web sites and applications in an easy manner.
· Can take advantage of Java Platform’s capabilities.
· Two layers: Presentation layer and Implementation layer.
· The HTML and Graphics portions on the web browser are in the presentation layer.
· Java code on the server is in the Implementation layer.
· With the separation the web designers can work on the presentation layer, and the java developers can work on implementing the applications.






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ASP.NET (Active Server Pages)

· .Net framework allows fast development of websites.
· Drag and drop form elements such as textboxes, checkboxes, etc. allows easy design capabilities.
· Easy access to database backend.
· Microsoft Proprietary Technology.




Presentation and Design Technologies



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CSS

· Cascading Style sheets.
· Determines the look and feel of different websites.
· Separates the design layer from the application layer creating simpler code.
· Once style is created for one page, it may be reused for the rest of the website saving valuable time for the developer. The developer no longer has to worry about adding colour and font to each heading tag.